Contract Of Employment Explained

Contract of employment like every other contract is an agreement between and employer and an employee which describes and states the condition of employment. It is always advisable for one to be sure of what the contract states before signing and accepting the contract as once signed it is binding on both parties. A well prepared contract of employment is a statement of the capacity in which the employee is employed, it covers and shows the name of the job, pay, allowances, hours of work, holidays, leave, pension arrangements, and should refer to the relevant company laws and policies as is applicable to the employee.

In a more refined way, a contract of employment is defined as an employment agreement voluntarily entered into by the employer and employee which stipulates and defines the conditions of employment. Most contracts of employment are in written form which makes it applicable and governed to the general law of contract. This then means that every contract of employment should be binding on both parties as well as valid. It then means that for the contract of employment to be binding just as I general law of contract, there should be an offer, an acceptance and a furnished consideration. In this case the offer is the written employment letter which is accepted by the employee and the consideration being the wage the employer is ready to pay the employee.

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF A CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT:

A well written contract of employment should include all of the following;

o Parties to the contract should be clearly stated: The name and contact address of the employee who is being employed should be clearly stated as well as the name and address of the employer.

o Date of employment should be clearly stated: The resumption date of the employment should be stated in the contract of employment. This will help in knowing when to start calculating the employee’s entitlements.

o Remuneration: The salary agreed on should be put down in writing. The scale or method of calculating the remuneration should also be put down in writing. Also the interval of payment should be written, either bi weekly or monthly depending on the policy of the firm.

o Terms and conditions of work relating to hours a day: The expected number of hours to be put in by the employee per day should be clearly stated in the contract of employment.

o Leave entitlements: The employees leave entitlement should be stated, number of days he is entitled to, his leave allowance, other types of leave he may be entitled to (sick leave, casual etc).

o Pension entitlements: The employee’s pension entitlements should be clearly stated if any.

o The job title: The title of the job being offered should be stated. The job tasks as well should be written.

o Confirmation: The number of months or years as the case may be the employee will serve successfully before his/her appointment will be confirmed should be stated.

o Disengagement: The number of days or months notice required by either of the parties before the contract will be terminated should be written as well.

After the contract of employment has been established, the employer and employer as well have duties to perform to keep to the terms of the contract. In the case of the employee, he has to keep to all of the following;

o Has to do his job personally: The employer was employed to work and carry out his duties by himself. It then means that by the terms of the contract, he has to do his job and duties by himself.

o Has to abide by the laws and policies of the firm: For every organization, there are laid down rules and regulations as well as policy guides that direct the affairs of the organization. The employee is bound by the contract of his employment to abide by the rules and regulations surrounding his employment contract. Disobedience to any of this may result to outright dismissal or termination of appointment.

o The employee should not by any means compete with his employer. He should not have any interest that will be against that of his employer.

o He is to conduct himself well and properly at all times. He should not be involved in any action that will be detrimental to the firm. He should come to work early and comport himself during office hours.

o He should be accountable to his employer on all assignments given to him during his period of employment.

o An employee should add value to his employer which is the main reason for his employment. He should be able to prove the skills he claimed to have prior to employment.

On the other hand the employer has some duties to perform for the employee to make sure that the contract of employment between them is sustained. The following are expected to be carried out by the employer;

o The employer is expected to pay the wages of the employee. As part of the employment contract, there is an amount that was agreed by both parties as wages for the employee. The employer is expected to pay such wages and as when due.

o He should provide the necessary and required tools to enable the employee carry out his duties effectively.

o The employer should also make sure that there is an enabling environment and good working conditions for the employee to perform his duties.

o The safety and safe working conditions should also be assured by the employer to avoid putting the employee at risk during his period of employment.

o The employee should be rewarded when he has performed well. He should also be motivated by the employer at all times. The employer should not see the employee as a slave, rather as a partner in progress, because without the employee, the employer will not succeed.

How to Make Firefox Safe

Is Firefox Safe?

Firefox is considered to be the safest of all the major browsers. One of the main reasons Firefox has remained safe is its reliably short market history. Internet Explorer was one of the first browsers to enter the market. It was also the first choice of hackers. Identity thieves, spammers and hackers have all sharpened their skills with Internet Explorer and have now turned their attention to Firefox. This has forced Mozilla to constantly plug security holes in their browser. In addition, Firefox has increased it's ability to save your personal web history. If the browser is hacked, all this data becomes available to identity thieves. This article will show you how to protect your data and make Firefox safe.

Top 3 Ways To Make Firefox Safe

1. Plug Holes with Security Add-Ons.

What's the first step to make Firefox safe? The answer is add-ons. Mozilla.org has tons of free add-ons to make Firefox safe, fast and more appealing. By simply downloading small additional features and taking the proper precautions, you can easily make Firefox safe. However, leaving Firefox unmodified does not make it any safer than Internet Explorer which is notorious for security holes. Modifying Firefox with specific add-ons can provide you with an excellent security barrier.

The trouble is most websites are using Java Script to display banners, videos and other "click-able" elements. Net security advisers recommend that you avoid clicking on anything on questionable sites. However, this is a difficult task when you are quickly browsing through numerous pages. Clicking on the wrong link can cause a scripting attack, browsers hijacks, and malware to be added to your computer. Most script blocking add-ons have been proven effective, such as PC World's World Class Award winner "NoScript"; This tool helps to make Firefox safe by allowing Java Script and other executable content to run only from trusted domains of your choice. If you want to make Firefox safe you should have some form of script blocking.

Not all add-ons are made equal. Some Firefox's add-ons can make you more vulnerable to attack from malicious software. Hackers are able to implant Java script code into your browsers via the add-ons security holes. This allows spyware to record your personal info and passwords. These add-ons have become favorite tools for hackers:

Google Toolbar, Yahoo Toolbar, Del.icio.us Extension, Facebook Toolbar, AOL Toolbar, Ask.com Toolbar, and Netcraft Anti-Phishing Toolbar.

2. Keep Your Private Data Safe

The second step to make Firefox safe is private data security. One of the major areas of concern for Firefox safe usage is the amount of internet history that Firefox records. All web browsers can record your Internet history, search history, and passwords. However Firefox 3 has added features that allow it to remember all your password. This password manager benefits anyone with multiple complicated passwords. However, its better to not store these in your browser. If you insist on storing your passwords in Firefox, you should apply the master password feature that protects your saved passwords. Here is how:

1. Click "Tools"
2. Scroll down and choose "Options"
3. Choose the Privacy heading
4. Select "Saved Passwords"
5. Set "Master Password"

A Master Password will not prevent others from reading locally stored e-mails, viewing your browsing history, or from accessing sites the browser is already logged in to. You will need to shut down the browser and clear your temporary internet files to remove this data:

1. Quit, Firefox and any other web browser
2. Click Start, click "Control Panel", then then double-click "Internet Options".
3. On the General tab, click "Delete Files" under Temporary Internet Files.
4. In the Delete Files dialog box, click to select the "Delete all offline content" check box, and then click OK.
5. Click "OK".

Remember that Firefox does a traditional delete. So, this does not permanently erase the data from your hard drive. Only a secure delete can award you the ability to erase data from the drive permanently. For more on secure delete visit this Secure Delete Tutorial page

3. Listen to the Warnings

You can make Firefox safe by customizing your security settings to warn you of any suspected problems. By using this option, Firefox will warn you if a site has had a history of malicious attacks. This is a great preemptive measure that can save you from malware attacks and make Firefox safe. Here is how:

1. Click "Tools"
2. Scroll down and choose "Options"
3. Choose the Security tab
4. Click the check box for: "Warm me when a sites try to install add-ons", "Tell me if the site I'm visiting is a suspected attack site" and "Tell me if the site I'm visiting is A suspected forgery site.

Top Ten Reasons to Start an Online Business at Home

There are currently over 24 million people working from home and each and every day the list grows larger. Everybody makes the decision to work at home for a large variety of reasons; Here are some of the most popular.

10. Be your own boss.

Within the high pressure working conditions found in the cut throat modern office environment today, employees are taking a stand and walking away from the stressful life they are placed under. To work for yourself gives you total freedom and the drive to succeed.

9. No Alarm Clock

No longer do you have to report to your office at 9.00am, you can choose your own hours. Release the stress and tension and throw that alarm clock to the wall.

8. No morning and evening commute

Save all those hours spent traveling to and from work, plus save on those high gas prices and lower your car maintenance costs.

7. No business start up expenses

All you need to work from home is your computer and an internet connection, no business office rent to pay, no expensive outlay, no staff.

6. Nothing too Complicated

Business employees in today's modern office are usually highly trained in computer internet technology, this experience makes it far easier for you to adapt to an online business set up at home.

5. Work from Home or Anywhere in the World

Once you have set up your online business to run on autopilot you have the enviable position to be able to just log in and check your internet accounts from anywhere.

4. Travel & Vacation to Suit You

No longer do you have to go crawling to the boss, unfortunately seeking some time off. Now you can escape whenever and to where you please.

3. More Time with the Family

Employees today complain that they are spending long hours at work, coupled with very long commutes to and from the office. All of this time takes them away from their family and friends. By working at home you have the added benefit of seeing your children grow up and releases more time for fun and relaxation with friends.

2. Opportunity to Increase Earnings.

There is nothing to compare with the chance to earn money by running your own business. With everything in life, the harder you work, the greater the rewards. Obviously there is no guarantee as to the amount of money your can earn on the internet, in all business ventures some people will earn more than others. However it is interesting to note that whenever those lists of the world's richest people are compiled, not one of them is ever an employee. They are always business owners.

And the Number 1 reason to start your online business is:

To be Happier.

Knowledge Mapping

This module focuses on the basics of Knowledge Mapping, its importance, principles, and methodologies.

Key Questions

  • What is K-map?
  • What does the K-map show, and what do we map?
  • Why is K-mapping so important?
  • What are some of the key principles, methods, and questions for K-mapping?
  • How do we create K-map?

Background

Each of the past centuries has been dominated by single technology. The eighth century was the time of the great mechanical systems involving the Industrial Revolution. The nineteenth century was the age of steam engine. After these, the key technology has been information gathering, processing and distribution. Among other developments, the installation of world wide telephone networks, the invention of radio and television, the birth and unpresented growth of the computer industry and the launching of communication satellites are significant. Now people started to think that only information is not enough, what matters is Knowledge. So there has been seen a shift from Information to Knowledge.

A bit of information without context and interpretation is data such as numbers, symbols.

Information is a set of data with context and interpretation. Information is the basis for knowledge.

Knowledge is a set of data and information, which which is added expert opinion and experience, to result in a valuable asset which can be used or applied to aid decision making. Knowledge may be explicit and / or tacit, individual and / or collective.

The term-Knowledge Mapping- seems to be relatively new, but it is not. We have been practicing this in our everyday life, just what we are not doing is – we are not documenting it, and we are not doing it in a systematic way. Knowledge Mapping is all about keeping a record of information and knowledge you need such as where you can get it from, who holds it, who expertise is it, and so on. Say, you need to find something at your home or in your room, you can find it in no time because you have almost all the information / knowledge about -what is where- and -who knows what- at your home. It is a sort of map set in your mind about your home. But, to set such a map about your organization and organizational knowledge in your mind is almost impossible. This is where K-map becomes handy and shows details of every bit of knowledge that exists within the organization including location, quality, and accessibility; And knowledge required to run the organization smoothly – since making you able to find out your required knowledge easily and efficiently.

Below are some of the definitions:

It's an ongoing quest within an organization (including its supply and customer chain) to help discover the location, ownership, value and use of knowledge artifacts, to learn the roles and expertise of people, to identify constants to the flow of knowledge, and to Highlight opportunities to leverage existing knowledge.

Knowledge mapping is an important practice consulting of survey, audit, and synthesis. It aims to track the acquisition and loss of information and knowledge. It explores personal and group competencies and proficiencies. It illustrates or "maps" how knowledge flows through an organization. Knowledge mapping helps an organization to appreciate how the loss of staff influences intellectual capital, to assist with the selection of teams, and to match technology to knowledge needs and processes.

– Denham Gray

Knowledge mapping is about making knowledge that is available within an organization transparent, and is about providing the insights into its quality.

– Willem-Olaf Huijsen, Samuel J. Driessen, Jan WM Jacobs

Knowledge mapping is a process by which organizations can identify and categorize knowledge assets within their organization – people, processes, content, and technology. It allows an organization to fully leverage the existing expert residency in the organization, as well as identify barriers and constraints to fulfilling strategic goals and objectives. It is constructing a roadmap to locate the information needed to make the best use of resourses, independent of source or form.

-W. Vestal, APQC, 2002

(American Productivity & Quality Center)

Knowledge Map describes what knowledge is used in a process, and how it flows around the process. It is the basis for determining knowledge commonality, or areas where similar knowledge is used across multiple process. Fundamentally, a process knowledge map cntains information about the organization? S knowledge. It describes who has what knowledge (tacit), where the knowledge resides (infrastructure), and how the knowledge is transferred or disseminated (social).

-IBM Global Services

How are the Knowledge Maps created?

Knowledge maps are created by transferring tacit and explicit knowledge into graphical formats that are easy to understand and interpret by the end users, who may be managers, experts, system developers, or anyone.

Basic steps in creating K-maps:

Basic steps – creating K-maps for specific task

  • The outcomes of the entire process, and their contributions to the key organizational activities
  • Logical sequences of all the activities needed to achieve the goal
  • Knowledge required for each activity {gives the knowledge gap}
  • Human resource required to undertake each activity {shows if recruitment is needed}

What do we map?

The followings are the objects we map:

  • Explicit knowledge
    • Subject
    • Purpose
    • Location
    • Format
    • Ownership
    • Users
    • Access right
  • Tacit knowledge
    • Expertise
    • Skill
    • Experience
    • Location
    • Accessibility
    • Contact address
    • Relationships / networks
  • Tacit organic process knowledge
    • The people with the internal processing knowledge
  • Explicit organizational process knowledge
    • Codified organizational process knowledge

What do the knowledge maps show?

Knowledge map shows the sources, flows, constitutions, and sinks of knowledge within an organization. It is a navigational aid to both explicit information and tacit knowledge, showing the importance and the relationships between knowledge stores and the dynamics. The following list will be more illustrative in this regard:

  • Available knowledge resources
  • Knowledge clusters and communities
  • Who uses what knowledge resources
  • The paths of knowledge exchange
  • The knowledge lifecycle
  • What we know we don? T know (knowledge gap)

Activity: 1

>> Can you create your personal knowledge map which shows the types and location of knowledge resources you use, the channels you use to access knowledge?

Where does knowledge tear?

Knowledge can be found in

  • Correspondents, internal documents
  • Library
  • Archives (past project documents, proposals)
  • Meetings
  • Best practices
  • Experience
  • Corporate memory

Activity: 2

>> What are the other places where you can find knowledge?

What are the other things to be mapped?

Benefits of K-mapping

In many organizations there is a lack of transparency of organization wide knowledge. Valuable knowledge is often not used because people do not know it exists, even if they know the knowledge exists, they may not know where. These issues lead to the knowledge mapping. Followings are some of the key reasons for doing the knowledge mapping:

  • To find key sources of knowledge creation
  • To encourage reuse and prevent reinvention
  • To find critical information quickly
  • To highlight islands of expertise
  • To provide an inventory and evaluation of intellectual and intangible assets
  • To improve decision making and problem solving by providing applicable information
  • To provide insights into corporate knowledge

The map also serves as the continuing evolving organizational memory, capturing and integrating the key knowledge of an organization. It enables employees learning through intuitive navigation and interpretation of the information in the map, and through the creation of new knowledge through the discovery of new relationships. Simply speaking, K-map gives employees not only -know what-, but also -know how-.

Key principles of Knowledge Mapping

  • Because of their power, scope, and impact, the creation of organizational-level knowledge map requires senior management support as well as careful planning
  • Share your knowledge about identifying, finding, and tracking knowledge in all forms
  • Recognize and locate knowledge in a wide variety of forms: tacit, explicit, formal, informal, codified, personalized, internal, external, and permanent
  • Knowledge is found in processes, relationships, policies, people, documents, conversations, links and context, and even with partners
  • It should be up-to-date and accurate

K-mapping – key questions

Knowledge map provides an assessment of existing and required knowledge and information in the following categories:

  • What knowledge is needed for work?
  • Who needs what?
  • Who has it?
  • Where does it benefit?
  • Is the knowledge tacit or explicit?
  • What issues does it address?
  • How to make sure that the K-mapping will be used in an organization?

Note:

  • K-maps should be easily accessible to all in the organization
  • It should be easy to understand, update and evolve
  • It should be regularly updated
  • It should be an ongoing process since knowledge landscapes are continuously shifting and evolving

Offline Readings:

  • K-mapping tools
  • K-mapping tool selection
  • Creating knowledge maps by exploiting dependent relationships
  • Creating knowledge structure map?
  • White pages
  • KM jargon and glossary

Online Resource: http: //www..voght.com/cgi-bin/pywiki? KnowledgeMapping

K-mapping Tools:

  • MindMapping
  • Inspiration
  • IHMC (cmap.ihmc.us/) (need to have.NET Framework and JavaRunTime installed in your computer)

(Learn more about KM tool selection at http://www.voght.com/cgi-bin/pywiki?KmToolSelection )
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Categorised K-mapping

Social Network Mapping:

This shows networks of knowledge and patterns of interaction among members, groups, organizations, and other social entities who knows who, who goes to what for help and advice, where the information enters and leaves the groups or organization, which forums and communities of practice Are operational and generating new knowledge.

Competency Mapping:

With this kind of mapping, one can create a competency profile with skill, positions, and even career path of an individual. And, this can also be converted into the? Organizational yellow pages? Which enables employees to find needed expertise in people within the organization.

Process-based Knowledge Mapping:

This shows knowledge and sources of knowledge for internal as well as external organizational processes and procedures. This includes tacit knowledge (knowledge in people such as know-how, and experience) and explicit knowledge (codified knowledge such as that in document).

Conceptual Knowledge Mapping:

Also sometimes called -taxonomy-, it is a method of hierarchically organizing and classifying content. This involves in labeling pieces of knowledge and relationships between them. A concept can be defined as any unit of thought, any idea that forms in our mind [Gertner, 1978]. Often, nouns are used to refer to concepts [Roche, 2002]. Relations form a special class of concepts [Sowa, 1984]: they describe connections between other concepts. One of the most important relationships between concepts is the hierarchical relation (subsumption), in which one concept (superconcept) is more general than another concept (subconcept) like Natural Resource Management and Watershed Management. This mapping should be able to relate similar kind of projects and workshops conducting / connected by two different departments, making them more integrated.

Knowledge is power, broadly accessible, understandable, and shared knowledge is even more powerful!